The market of making confectionaries (ειδη περιπτερου ), like lots of other industries, has altered dramatically in the last few years. Although the basic formulations have actually undergone small adjustments, the manufacturing modern technologies have changed considerably (this uses particularly to the techniques of forming tiny items as well as floor tiles, along with their packaging).
At the start of this phase, it appears appropriate to point out only these adjustments, yet a lot more on those later put on specific recipes.
Different teams of confectionery items require details molding approaches so that they can be covered and packaged in the most ideal method up for sale. Possibly the most effective technology was the bread bar. These bars permit you to utilize affordable approaches of manufacturing, product packaging as well as screen at the point of sale.
At the same time, there were visible renovations in the product packaging – both in the products utilized and also in the securing approaches. A lot of benches in order to guarantee lengthy service life, to safeguard versus insect damages and contamination call for safety packaging. We take into consideration these factors in separate phases.
We have actually already taken into consideration the manufacturing of delicious chocolate, and also as a result it is clear that chocolate and complicated lusters have a mostly fatty basis, their moisture content is very reduced (typically less than 1%), and the components are not in aqueous remedy.
In several confectionery processes, the liquifying capacity of sugar (sucrose) is taken into account individually or in combination with various other sugars, such as sugar syrup (corn syrup) as well as invert sugar. There are 2 primary groups of sugar confectionery items: a) products in which sugar is totally liquified, and b) products in which sugar is partially dissolved, and also partially present in the form of little solid crystals suspended in solution. These items might be modified with other components (for instance, milk as well as fats). The very first team includes hard candy, tough and soft milk sugary foods, toffee and also most jelly sweets. The second team includes items such as fudge, fudge (fudge), marshmallows and nougat with an obvious fine-crystalline structure.
Summary confectionery production technologies
Listed below we will see that all the selection of appearances gotten is an outcome of using numerous technical procedures and also solutions, all of which need special techniques for the development of private items. Here we check out basic innovation problems, and also see their particular uses in various other sections of this book.
Smearing and also reducing
The machine is equipped with cooled rolls, which permit you to feed the product directly from the device, where it is prepared, to the plate creating tools. After molding and also lamination, the plates are fed to a cooling device, and afterwards to traditional cutting tools and spreaders. Then the products are glazed.
Фирма SOLLICH GmbH, г. Бад-Зальцуфлен, Германия.
This is most likely the earliest method of producing bars (tiles) and also specific products from plastic products such as fudge, nougat and numerous pastes. A confectionery item in a proper plastic state, established by its moisture, fat content or temperature level, is first fed to the rolls to get a plate of the required thickness. This plate is after that fed to cutting devices to produce large strips, which are then cut into slim ceramic tiles or bars. Currently, the hot item is fed to cooled rolls, allowing to acquire multilayer plates. The plates are continuously cut into strips that pass through the (” spreading maker)” spreader “, after which the strips are cut into bars or little pieces. An instance of such a procedure is the Sollich Conjug system (Fig. 19.1).
Casting or otsadka
This approach is made use of for the production of candies, fondant as well as jelly candies, some kinds of milk candies and also fudge, marshmallows and various other products that can be obtained in liquid type.
Some products in fluid form might be formed at a temperature of about 150 ° C in a steel mold and mildew whose surface area is covered with a “lube”.
Pomadnye, želejnye sweet, maršmellou.
These products are typically cast into cells formed in starch (see below the section “Fondant shells”). An extra recent advancement is the automatic rainfall and removal of fondant coverings as well as some other confectionery products using metal mold and mildews (Cadbury-Baker Perkins), as well as the rainfall of caramel and toffee into silicone mold and mildews (Baker Perkins). Silicone is a non-tacky product that has unique properties as well as is immune to relatively high temperatures, common for the manufacturing of caramel confectionery.
This technique applies almost solely to sweet sugar and also some types of toffee. The usual flavored sweets, sugary foods with a filler and also “toffee” are made.
The manufacturing principle is to cool down the made syrup under controlled problems up until it reaches a pliable state. In this state, the product is changed right into a kind of rope, fed to the stamps, on which the ended up products (usually of a certain form or with a pattern) are acquired from it. The resulting products are quickly sent out to the air conditioning cupboard and also covering device.
To acquire some sorts of sugar and also chewy sweets, a version of this method is made use of, in which the harness gotten in a comparable method is fed to a cutting-wrapping maker, where with the help of high-speed round blades, small items are reduced from it that come to the covering machine.
Extrusion as well as molding bars.
The concept of extrusion, carried out in the production of lots of non-food items, has actually been efficiently applied in the confectionery sector. The application of this procedure to the production of numerous items– from soft products such as marshmallows and fondant desserts to extremely plastic nougat and also milk delicious chocolates– is explained in  In this situation, the material based on extrusion is fed to the outlet nozzles with the help of a number of rolls or augers. The nozzle hole account determines the form of the final product, and lots of extruders are furnished with a variety of nozzles that produce harnesses that can be cut into bars or tiny items. In fig. 19.2 programs different rolls for extruders, as well as fig. 19.3 is a Wemer-Lehara extruder cross section with a system for removing little pieces from the strands. In fig. 19.4 reveals the design of the Weisert-Loser extruder for the extrusion of eating gum tissue and eating candy.
The layout of the NID bar extruder is a little various. The feeding is executed by grooved rollers in the same way as in various other extruders, but the material to be created is fed to a 2nd account roller. The profiled surface area of the roll is covered with fluoroplastic to make sure easy splitting up of the product and is made use of to form the bars into the required shape. The pins help eliminate the harnesses onto the conveyor belt.
It is feasible to make multi-layer bars in which 2 layers are extruded at the same time, or bars with a body from an additional confectionery item. Extrusion works well with various other continual production and glazing methods.
When extrusion confectionery must observe specific precautions.
Temperature. The extrusion temperature is of essential relevance, specifically in the case of milk candy and nougat, the consistency of which is highly based on temperature. Small changes in temperature can lead to huge changes in extrusion pressure. For soft milk desserts, a temperature of 35 to 38 ° C is generally made use of, however much depends upon the kind of product, as well as the specific temperature level.
Scenic tour problems must be determined empirically. Reduced temperature levels as well as high pressures cause knockout of extruder safety plugs.
Separation of fat … If fat divides during extrusion, this is a sign of bad emulsification. Renovation is accomplished when an emulsifier (eg lecithin or glyceryl monostearate) is included in the formulation.
Devastation after extrusion … After extrusion, some items shed their form, and the strip, which is practically round in cross-section, after a short time on the strip may come to be significantly flatter. This is because of a number of factors:.
expensive a moisture material;.
It was not emulsified fat as well as might be as well soft;.
the healthy protein of any kind of dairy products component is not appropriately distributed;.
in fudge or pastes, no crystalline structure has formed or has been damaged by extreme stirring after crystal development. This flaw can be really subtle, and also in continuous fudge production, its appearance depends upon the moment the crystallizing lipstick is added prior to extrusion. It is possible to establish the optimum problems for a certain tools just experimentally. Firms specializing in the manufacturing of extrusion tools have actually performed a huge quantity of research study in the layout of makers for the extrusion of confectionery products of different uniformities. For some items – such as gummies and eating gum tissue – the roll extruder is paving the way to a multi-cavity screw (worm) extruder. These technologies are defined in various other areas of the book.
The principle of panning is currently defined in Chapter 5. There are 2 sorts of sugar rolling – difficult and also loose. With hard knurling, successive layers of powdered sugar and syrup are built up on the desired body (for instance, nuts) and dried out with cozy air passing in between the applied layers. Loosened knurling is carried out in a comparable means, but utilizing chilly modern technology. Soft shells are made use of (for example, pasta, jelly, soft milk filling), and also the finishing is constructed from sugar (or sugar) syrup and also powdered sugar. After getting to the desired dimension as well as weight of the finishing, the sweets are partially dried and covered with glaze. The procedure is completely mechanized, including loading and also discharging the tanks, automatic splashing of syrups (or chocolate), and control of drying out or cooling air to the storage tanks.
Confectionery lipstick made from sugar, sugar or corn syrup as well as invert sugar is typically denoted in English by the word “creme” (lotion), yet some conventional products make use of the choice “lotion”, as well as in various countries it is called differently.
The fondant is prepared by liquifying sugar and also sugar syrup (or invert sugar) in water and also focusing by boiling to a solution consisting of concerning 88% DM. At ambient temperature, this service is supersaturated with sugar and also unstable, and if it is rapidly stirred and cooled, after that the excess sugar befalls of the remedy in the form of small crystals. Therefore, the fondant mass has a solid stage of sugar crystals suspended in a fluid stage containing a saturated service of “sugars”.
Without blending as well as cooling huge crystals are developed. Beating in itself gives unacceptable results, because a big amount of latent heat of formation is launched. If the whipped syrup is left warm, formation decreases and also succeeding slow-moving cooling brings about the formation of large crystals. Fondant of top quality ought to be soft in uniformity.
Initially, lipstick was prepared utilizing only sugar, which was liquified in water and concentrated by steaming to concerning the degree of 88-90% ST. Given that the solubility of sugar at regular temperatures is just 67%, the syrup with a focus of 90% is very unstable and crystallizes upon rapid cooling, “providing” huge crystals.
To conquer this disadvantage, an additive was used that caused the inversion of a part of the sugar as well as increased the total solubility – this made it feasible to whip the syrup right into a fondant mass. Citric or tartaric acids or, extra preferably, tartar (tartaric acid) are made use of as such ingredients. The formation of invert sugar from sugar is reviewed in another chapter, yet below we just note that such additives disintegrate part of the sugar (sucrose), which is chemically a disaccharide, right into two monosaccharides, dextrose (glucose) and also fructose. Fructose is a lot more soluble (about 80% at 20 ° C) than sucrose, as well as its visibility with dextrose enables the concentrated syrup to be whipped into a lipstick.
This method of application of the additive is very unreliable, because the quantity of invert sugar developed differs greatly depending upon the pureness of the sugar, the boiling time and also the firmness of the water utilized. Ideal results are acquired by including in the sugar syrup a particular amount of invert sugar, prepared individually.
Lipstick, made from sugar and invert sugar, has a granular structure as well as is very sweet in taste (it is hardly ever made use of in contemporary confectionery production). Glucose (corn) syrup has replaced invert sugar in lipstick formulations; it is much less wonderful, as well as the visibility of intricate carbohydrates controls the formation of crystals and provides a much more viscous lipstick, which does not have a loosened (crunchy) texture.